History of France

History of France

France is a great country with all its greatness and tragedy. Countries with more than 55 million inhabitants, is located in the heart Eropa.LFranceinternational language used by more than 60 million people worldwide,especially in countries France, Belgium, several countries in the region of WestAfrica, Haity, and also the French colonies in France Pacific. French is the official language of instruction in the official languages ​​of the European Unionuse the instructions in the UN community, coupled with the language of the people who know others. All French perfume and fashion as well, such asVersace. Though France has a high Tehnology that in some ways not inferior toUSA state, such as automotive Tehnology with its TGV train / fast, Airbus,Tehnology telecommunications, etc.Don t 'forget also that France also has a sophisticated automobile industry, such as car who has won the Renault F1races in France in 2006 the State is also famous for writers, such as VictorHugo.State France is one of the founders of the European Union, one member of the G8, one of France is the leading country. Industrial countries one country that dared to criticize the United States, as well as the United States refusedthe desire to menggirimkan troops to Iraq to disarm Iraq of weapons of massdestruction (apparently not proven the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq). In addition, the French state is a member of the UNSecurity Council, which has a veto. France is also a member of the Paris Clubwhich provides financial assistance to developing countries.

History The establishment of the French State

France, officially the Republic of France (French: République française, French spelling: [ʁepyblik fʁɑsɛz]), is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and also has various overseas islands and territories located in other continents. [1] Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. French people often refer to Metropolitan France as "L'Hexagone" ("Hexagon") because of geometric shapes territory. France is a unitary semi-presidensia republic that has no president. Its main ideals are expressed in the Declaration of Human Rights and the Citizen.

France is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain. Due to its overseas departments, France also shares land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana), and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). France is also linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which is under the English Channel.

France has become one of the greatest strengths of the world since the mid-17th century. In the 18th century and 19th centuries, France built one of the largest colonial empires of the time, stretching across West Africa and Southeast Asia, the region's political and cultural influence. France is a developed country, with the sixth largest economy (nominal GDP) or eighth (PPP) in the world. Is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually (including business travelers, but excluding people staying less than 24 hours in France). [2] France is one of the founding countries of the European Union, and has a region The biggest of all members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations, and members of the Francophonie, the G8, NATO, and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations; also a large nuclear power with 360 active warheads and 59 nuclear power plants.

Originally Names And History

The name "France" comes from Latin Francia, meaning "land of the Franks" or "Frankland". There are various theories of the origin of the name of Frank. One of them is derived from Proto-Germanic frankon which translates as javelin or lance as ax throwing Frank, known as Francisca. [Citation needed]

Another etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means "free" which refers to the slaves. This word is still used in French as franc, also used as a translation of "Frank" and the name of the local currency, to use the euro in the 2000s.

But, in addition to the ethnic name comes from the word frank Frank, is also possible that this word comes from the ethnic name of Frank, [citation needed] the relationship is that only the Franks, as the ruling class, has the status of free citizens. In German, French is still called Frankreich, which means "Kingdom of the Nation Frank". To distinguish it from the Frank Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France is called Frankreich, while the Frankish kingdom called Frankenreich.

The word "Frank" has been used since the fall of Rome through the Middle Ages, from the appointment of Hugh Capet as the "King of the Franks" ("Rex Francorium") commonly refers to the kingdom of Francia, which later became France. King Capetia decreased from Robertine, which has two Frank kings, and previously held the title of "Duke of the Franks" ("dux Francorum"). Frank Soil covers most of modern northern France but because the king's power is weakened by regional princes the title is then set at the royal demesne as a short-handed. Until last name is taken for the entire kingdom as the central authority established for the entire kingdom.

Geography of France

Metropolitan France occupies an area of ​​547,030 square kilometers (211,209 sq mi), the largest country among all European Union members and slightly larger than Spain. France has a wide range of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to the networks in the southeastern Alps, the Massif Central in south-central and Pyrenees in the southwest. At an altitude of 4807 meters (15,770 ft) above sea level, the highest point in Western Europe, Mont Blanc, is situated in the Alps on the border between France and Italy. Metropolitan France also has a long river systems such as the Loire, Garonne, Seine and Rhône, which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea in the Camargue, the lowest point in France (2 m / 6.5 ft below sea level). Corsica lies off the coast of France Mediterania.Total land area, with departments and territories across the sea (not including Adelie Land), is 674,843 square kilometers (260,558 sq mi), 0.45% of the total Earth. However, France has the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) the second largest in the world, with 11,035,000 square kilometers (4.26 million sq mi), about 8% of the total surface of all the EEZ of the world, after the United States (11,351,000 km ² / 4383. 000 sq mi) and before Australia (8.232 million km ² / 3,178,000 sq mi).

Metropolitan France is located between 41 ° and 51 ° North, on the west side of Europe, and is located in the northern temperate zone. The north and northwest has mild climate, while the combined influence of the sea, latitude and altitude produce a variety of climates throughout Metropolitan France. [9] In the southeastern Mediterranean climate occurs. In the west, dominated by marine climate with high rainfall, cool winters to warm summers. On land the climate is more continental with hot summers and stormy, cold winters and less rain. Climate of the Alps and other mountainous regions is alpine, with the number of days with temperatures below zero almost 150 per year and snow cover up to six months.

Modern French border with the ancient Gauls, who inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul ruled for Rome by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC, and the use of Roman Gaul (Latin, in which grew a French language) and Roman culture. Christianity came in the second century AD 2 and 3, and set in the 4th century and 5 so that St. Jerome wrote that Gaul was the only region "free from deviant beliefs".
In the 4th century AD, the eastern defenses along the Rhine Gauls destroyed the Germanic tribes, especially from Frank, darinyalah ancient name of "Francie" derived. The modern name "France" comes from the domain name of the feudal king Capetia France around Paris. Frank was the first tribe among the Germanic rulers in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism (converted King Clovis in 498); that France obtained the nickname "the youngest of the Church" (La fille de l'Église ainée), and France took it as an adjustment to the nickname "Most Christian Kingdom of France".

Establishment as a separate entity began with the Treaty of Verdun (843), with the division of Charlemagne's Empire Karoling into East Francia, Middle Francia and Western Francia. West Francia was occupied territory of modern France and the beginning of modern France.

Dynasty Karoling led France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and duke of Paris, was appointed as the King of France. Offspring, Capetia Direct, Bourbon Dynasty and the Valois dynasty, unified the country through various wars and dynastic inheritance. This monarchy reached its glory during the 17th century and the rule of Louis XIV of France. At that time France has the largest population in Europe (see Demographics of France) and has a great influence on the political, economic, and cultural Europe. French became, and is set for some time, the common language in foreign affairs. Many of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and many scientific discoveries came from French scientists in the 18th century. In addition, France has various colonies in the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Kingdom ruled France until the French Revolution, 1789, Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, was executed (1793), along with thousands of other French civilians. After various government schemes short, Napoleon Bonaparte took over the government of the Republic in 1799, making it the First Consul, and later Emperor of what is now known as the First Empire (1804-1814). In some wars, troops controlled most of continental Europe, with members of the Bonaparte family was appointed as the king of the kingdoms of the newly founded.

After the final defeat of Napoleon in 1815 in the Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy was re-established, but with new constitutional limitations. In 1830, a civilian uprising forced the establishment of the constitutional July Monarchy, which runs until 1848. Short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second Empire. Louis-Napoléon retreat after defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic.

France has a colonial empire, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. In the 19th century and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire in the world's second largest after the British Empire. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire stretched up to 12,347,000 square kilometers (4,767,000 sq mi). Includes Metropolitan France, the total area of ​​land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 square kilometers (4.98 million sq mi) of the 1920s and the 1930s, which covers 8.6% of the total world's land.
Although victorious in World War I and World War II, France suffered many deaths and material losses (and although only a small portion occupied territory during World War I, the metropolitan territory entirely occupied by the Germans during the second war). In the 1930s was marked by a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government. Fourth Republic was established after World War II and, in addition to the spectacular economic growth (les Trente Glorieuses), the country is trying to manage their political status as a dominant nation state. France tried to maintain its colonial empire, but later became a problem. 1936 attempt to take back control of French Indochina resulted in the outbreak of the First Indochina War, which ended in French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. A few months later, France faced a new conflict, and greater in Algeria.

Debate about possible or not to keep control of Algeria, which was then home to one million residents of Europe, destroying the country and start a civil war hanpir. In 1958, the Fourth Republic is weak and unstable transformed into the Fifth Republic, which has further strengthened the power of the President. First leader, Charles de Gaulle tried to unite the country while ending the war. Algerian War and Franco-French civil war that took place in the capital Algiers, ending with the peace negotiations in 1962 which brought the independence of Algeria.

In recent decades, France reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the political and economic integration of the European Union, including the introduction of the euro in January 1999. France has occupied the forefront of European Union member states are trying to capitalize on the opportunity to establish a financial unity of political agency, defense, and security of the European Union a more unified and capable. French electorate voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005, but the Lisbon Treaty ratified by Parliament in February 2008.

French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions. Constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. Thereby strengthening the authority of the executive to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, which is the Head of State and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for the post for 5 years (previously seven years), and the Government, led by Prime Minister appointed president.

French Parliament is a bicameral legislature consisting of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate. National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and elected directly for 5 years. Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and a majority of Assembly members set the options the government. Senators elected by the board of voters for the office of six years (actually 9 years), and half the seats included in the selection of every third year beginning in September 2008. [11] The legislative power of the Senate is limited; the opposition between the two parties, the National Assembly has the last word, except for constitutional laws and lois organiques (law provided directly by the constitution) in some respects. The Government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.

French political grouping which is characterized by two politically opposed to each other: first the left wing, centered around the French Socialist Party and other right wing, previously focused on the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now the Union for Popular Movement (UMP). The executive branch consists mostly of members of the UMP.

Legal System

France uses a civil law system, which means, the law comes mainly from written rules; judges do not make law, but interpret it (though the amount of judge interpretation in some ways makes the same as case law). The basic principle of law rules contained in the Code Napoleon. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of Human Rights and of the Citizen law should only mlarang actions detrimental to society. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons:

Freedom is the rule, and its ban adalan exception; ban any freedom must be made by Law and must follow the principle of liability and comparison.

Means, the Law must be issued a ban only where needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this prohibition does not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is required for recovery. In practice, of course, this ideology often fail when the law was made.

French law is divided into two main parts: private law and public law. Private law includes, typically, civil law and criminal law. Common law includes, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practice, French law comprises three main parts: the civil law: criminal law and administrative law.

France does not recognize religious law, or the recognition of religious belief or morality as a motivation for the determination of the ban. As a consequence, France no longer has the legal mudslinging or sodomy laws (the last removed in 1791). But the "attack on common decency" (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or destroyer of peace (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used to suppress the re-expression of homosexuality or prostitution of public streets.

Laws can only be used in the future and not the past (ex post facto laws are prohibited); and should be implemented, the law must be officially published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française.

About the Military

Since the Algerian War, conscription has been reduced and removed in 2001 by Jacques Chirac. The total number of military personnel was 359,000 people. France spends 2.6% GDP on defense, a little more than the United Kingdom (2.4%), and was the highest in the EU where defense spending is generally less than 1.5% of GDP. Together constitute 40% of EU defense spending. Approximately 10% of revenues go to the French defense force de frappe, or nuclear weapons. Some French military equipment is made in France. For example Rafale fighter aircraft, transport aircraft ship Charles de Gaulle, Exocet missiles, and missile Leclerc. Some weapons, such as E-2 Hawkeye or the E-3 Sentry purchased from the United States. Rather than get out of the Eurofighter project, France actively investing in European joint projects such as the Eurocopter Tiger, multipurpose small warships, Neuron UCAV demonstrator and the Airbus A400M. France is a big seller because most designs weapons arsenal available for export markets with the exception of nuclear-powered equipment. Some French-made equipment designed specifically for export such class submarines Scorpène French-Spanish. Some French equipments have been modified to meet the requirements of allied nations such as weight-class submarines (based on the La Fayette class) or the Hashmat class submarines (based on the Agosta class submarines).

* Despite having an anti-terrorist units like the most powerful or EPIGN gendarmerie GIGN is military police force which acts as a rural police force and public. Since its formation GIGN had undergone surgery and freed one thousand five hundred hostages; hijacking of Air France Flight 8969 attracted worldwide attention.
* French Intelligence can be divided into two main units: the DGSE (outside agency) and the DST (domestic agency). The latter is part of the police while the former is associated with the army. DGSE famous for Sinking the Rainbow Warrior, but also known for revealing the many networks of high-tech spy latest unknown in Europe and the United States through the agency of Vladimir Vetrov.
* "Force de frappe" France relies on complete freedom. France's nuclear arsenal consists of four submarines equipped with M45 ballistic missiles. Triomphant is being created to replace the former Redoutable class. M51 will replace the M45 in the future and extend the range of Triomphant. In addition to the submarine force uses the Mirage 2000N French guards; variant of the Mirage 2000 and was designed to send a nuclear attack. Other nuclear equipment such as intercontinental ballistic missile Plateau d'Albion and Hades short-range missiles had been turned off. With 350 nuclear warheads France is the third largest nuclear power in the world. [12]
* Marine Nationale is recognized as one of the strongest armies in the world. Professional Compendium flottes de combats, in 2006, is ranked as the sixth largest navy in the world after America, Russia, China, United Kingdom and Japan. [13] Equipped with only one nuclear-powered aircraft Transport Ship in the world, with exception of the American navy. More recently Mistral class ships joined the Marine Nationale, the Mistral itself has undergone surgery in Lebanon. For the 2004 Entente Cordiale President Chirac mengumuman French freighter aircraft will be designed with the future of the United Kingdom. French naval warships are equipped with a small class of La Fayette, an early example of the spy ship, and several ships will be issued within the next few years and replaced by more modern ships, examples of future surface ships are the Forbin-class warships and Aquitaine also part of Force Océanique Stratégique although they do not carry nuclear weapons, now is the class Rubis Class and will be replaced in future by Suffren Class.
* Armée de Terre employs 133,500 people, famous for Etrangère Legion (French Foreign Legion) though the French special forces are not the Legion but the Dragons Parachutistes Parachutistes and Marines. France is the FAMAS rifle and infantry attack system is Felin future. France uses brindle and wheeled vehicles to a number of purposes, examples of wheeled vehicles is the Caesar or the AMX 10 RC. Although its main battle tank Leclerc many older AMX tanks 30 are still in operation. Using the AMX 30 AuF1 for artillery. Finally equipped with Eurocopter Tiger helicopter.
* Armée de l'Air is the oldest and first professional air force in the world. Until now maintain its capacity. Using a lot of two aircraft: Mirage F1 and Mirage 2000 new parents. The last models made in the ground attack version called Mirage2000D. Modern Rafale is being made by air and sea forces of France.

French Economy

French economy combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 companies registered) with government intervention (see dirigisme) substantial (though declining). The government maintains influence over an important part in the infrastructure sector, with majority ownership of firms railroads, electricity, airplanes, and telecommunications. It has been gradually relaxing its control since the early 1990s. The government is slowly selling shares in France Telecom, Air France, as well as the insurance industry, banking, and defense.

A member of the G8 group of industrialized nations, France was ranked fifth or sixth largest economy by nominal GDP is dependent on the source. [16] France to join with 11 other anggotaUE to launch the euro on January 1, 1999, with euro coins and banknotes that replaced French franc (₣) in early 2002.

According to the OECD, in 2004 France is the fifth largest exporter of manufactured goods in the world and fourth largest importer in the world. In 2003, France was the recipient of foreign direct investment the 2nd-largest among OECD countries at $ 47 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located in that country) but above the United States ($ 39.9 billion), United Kingdom ($ 14.6 billion), Germany ($ 12.9 billion), or Japan ($ 6.3 billion). In the same year, French companies invested $ 57.3 billion outside of France, put France as direct investors outside of the second most important in the OECD, after the United States ($ 173.8 billion), and on the United Kingdom ($ 55.3 billion), Japan ($ 28.8 billion) and Germany ($ 2.6 billion).

In the 2005 edition of OECD in Figures, the OECD also noted that France leads the G7 countries according to productivity (measured as GDP per hour worked). In 2004, GDP per hour worked in France was $ 47.7, above the United States ($ 46.3), Germany ($ 42.1), United Kingdom ($ 39.6), or Japan ($ 32.5).

In addition to showing the amount of productivity per hour worked is higher than in the U.S., France's GDP per capita lower than U.S. per capita GDP, to be able to GDP per capita compared with other European countries, which average 30% below the U.S.. The reason is that many of the small percentage of the French population that works when Compared to the U.S., the GDP per capita is lower than France, because of high productivity. In fact, France has one of the lowest percentage of population aged 15-64 years who worked among OECD countries. In 2004 68.8% of the French population aged 15-64 years of work, compared with 80.0% in Japan, 78.9% in Britain, 77.2% in the U.S., and 71.0% in Germany. [19] This phenomenon is caused by the nearly thirty years of mass unemployment in France, which leads to three problems that reduce the size of the working population: about 9% of the active population are unemployed; students delay as long as possible their entry into the labor market, and last, the French government gives various incentives to workers to retire at early ages 50 years, despite increasingly reduced.

While many economists expressed his disappointment over the years, the main problem with the French economy is not productivity. In their opinion, the main structural reforms, to increase the size of the working population of the entire population. Liberal and Keynesian economists have different answers on this issue. Working hours are low and the reluctance of the re-establishment labor market is considered as a weak point in the view of the French economy and lack of right-wing government policies that establish social justice by the left wing. Recent government efforts to adjust the labor market is young, reducing unemployment, has been opposed in full.

With 81.9 million foreign tourists in 2007, [2] France is ranked first as the best tourist destination in the world, above Spain (58.5 million in 2006) and the United States (51.1 million in 2006). 81.9 million of this amount does not include people staying less than 24 hours in France, such as Northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the Summer. France has a highly cultured city (Paris being the primary), beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural areas who enjoyed for the beauty and comfort (green tourism). Besides the usual tourism France attracts a variety of religious pilgrims to Lourdes, a town in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées, which is visited by several million tourists per year. Well known tourist sites include: (according to ranking visitors [20] per year in 2003): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), the Louvre Museum (5.7 million), the Palace of Versailles (2.8 million), Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Centre Pompidou (1.2 million), Mont-Saint-Michel (1 million), the Château de Chambord (711 000), Sainte-Chapelle (683 000), the Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549 000), Puy de Dome (500,000), Musée Picasso (441.000), Carcassonne (362 000).

France has an important space industry-led European consortium Airbus, and along with Sweden being the only European power (excluding Russia) which has a private national spaceport (Centre Spatial Guyanais). France is also the West's most energy independent because of large investments in nuclear power (nuclear power in France), which also makes France the least producer of carbon dioxide among the seven industrialized countries in the world. As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, a lot of electricity produced in the country is generated by nuclear power (78.1% in 2006, [21] increased from 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990).

A lot of fertile land, the making of modern technology and EU subsidies have combined to make the French manufacturer and leading exporter of agricultural products in Europe. Wheat, poultry, dairy, meat, and pork, as well as industry-recognized food and wine is the main French agricultural exports. EU agriculture subsidies to France nearly reached $ 14 billion.

Since the end of the Second World War the government made efforts to integrate with Germany, both economically and politically. Today the two countries form what is called the state "core" for greater integration into the European Union.

French Architecture

Technically, no architecture named French Architecture, although it was never true. Old name is Gothic Architecture France Architecture (or Opus Francigenum). The term "Gothic" appears as a form of style and is widely used. Northern France is home to some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first is Saint Denis Basilica (used as a royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. The king was crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. Apart from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used in many religious palaces, the most important is the Palais des Papes in Avignon.

During the Middle Ages, the fortified castle built by feudal nobles to mark their authority against its competitors. When King Philip II took Rouen from King John, for example, he knocked down Ducal castle to build a bigger one. Fortified cities are also common, unfortunately most French castles were destroyed timeless. This is why Château-Gaillard Richard the Lionheart was demolished, also the Château de Lusignan. Some French castles that survived are Chinon, Château d'Angers, a giant castle Château de Vincennes and Cathar Castle.

Before the appearance of this architecture France had used the Roman architecture like most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula, which Moorish architecture). Some great examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and Cluny Abbey ruins (destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars).

End of the Hundred Years War marks an important stage in the change of French architecture. Was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to France; many palace residence, Italian design, built, especially in the Loire Valley. Some of the castle residence of the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. After the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque Architecture replaced the gothic. However, in France, baroque architecture reap a big success in the domain of secular rather than religious. [40] In the secular domain the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart can be said as an architect of French influence in the baroque style, baroque dome Degnan his celebrated at Les Invalides. Some impressive provincial baroque architecture can be found in places that were not French like the Place Stanislas in Nancy. In the military architectural side Vauban designed the most efficient number of fortresses in Europe and became the most influential military architect.

End of the Hundred Years War marks an important stage in the change of French architecture. Was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to France; many palace residence, Italian design, built, especially in the Loire Valley. Some of the castle residence of the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. After the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque Architecture replaced the gothic. However, in France, baroque architecture reap a big success in the domain of secular rather than religious. [40] In the secular domain the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart can be said as an architect of French influence in the baroque style, baroque dome Degnan his celebrated at Les Invalides. Some impressive provincial baroque architecture can be found in places that were not French like the Place Stanislas in Nancy. In the military architectural side Vauban designed the most efficient number of fortresses in Europe and became the most influential military architect.

After the Revolution, although the Republicans adore Neoklasikisme neoklasikisme introduced in France before the revolution, with buildings such as the Paris Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine show this trend as the best.

Under Napoleon III a new wave of urbanism and architecture done. When several buildings of interest such as neo-baroque Palais Garnier built, urban planning at the time was very neat and great. For example Baron Haussmann rebuilt Paris. This period also evokes a strong Gothic Revival trend across Europe, the French architect who designed it was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In the 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges (like the Bridge Garabit) and became one of the influential designers of the bridge at that time, although he managed to be remembered for the Eiffel Tower.

In the 20th century, the Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. Many of the latest French architect combines modern and old architectural styles. Louvre Pyramid is a good example of modern architecture added to an old building. The most difficult buildings built in the French cities are skyscrapers, as it can be seen from afar. France's largest financial district is La Defense, where a large number of skyscrapers are located. Other large buildings are challenged to adjust to the environment is a big bridge; for example, the Millau Viaduct. Some modern French architect Jean Nouvel include or Paul Andreu.

France Foreign Relations

France is a member of the United Nations and served as one of the UN Security Council permanent members with veto power. Also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Indian Ocean Commission (COI). This country is a member of the Association of Caribbean related (ACS) and the leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one French-speaking countries. Having the headquarters of the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, Alliance Base and the International Bureau for Weights and Measures. In 1953 France received a request from the United Nations to create a symbol that can represent it internationally. Then the symbol of French spoken and used in passports.

French foreign policy has been shaped by membership of the European Union, which is a founding member. In the 1960s, France tried to remove Britain from the organization, because it is only the European continent. Since the 1990s, France has made close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential movers in the EU, but the rival British and limit the influence of Eastern European countries. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, but under President de Gaulle, the French remove themselves from the joint military command to avoid the domination of foreign policy and security by the U.S. military and political influence. In the early 1990s, the country has received much criticism from other countries for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. France strongly opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, threaten bilateral relations with the United States and Britain. France to maintain political influence and economic ties in the former African colonies and sending economic aid and troops for the peacekeeping mission in Cote d'Ivoire and Chad.

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