History Of Computer And All About Computers

What is Computer?? 

Computer is a tool used to process the data according to procedures that have been formulated. Computer word originally used to describe people who perkerjaannya perform arithmetic calculations, with or without hearing aids, but the meaning of the word is then transferred to the machine itself. Origins, processing information almost exclusively related to arithmetical problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks unrelated to mathematics.

Broadly speaking, the computer can be defined as an electronic equipment which consists of several components, which can cooperate between the components with one another to produce an information based on existing programs and data. The computer components are included: Screen Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse and Printer (as complementary). Without a computer printer can still perform his duties as a data processor, but not limited to visible screen monitor in the form of print outs (paper).

In such definition, there are tools such as slide rules, mechanical calculators types ranging from abacus, and so on, until all contemporary electronic computers. The term better suited to a broader term such as "computer" is "that process information" or "information processing system."

Today, computers are becoming more sophisticated. However, before a computer is not as small, sophisticated, cool and light as now. In the history of computers, there are five generations in the history of computers.

First Generation

With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic computer. This increased funding for computer development projects hastened technical progress. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer, the Z3, to design airplanes and missiles.

Party allies also made other progress in the development of computing power. In 1943, the British completed the secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode secret German messages. The Colossus's impact influenced the development of the computer industry because of two reasons. First, the Colossus is not a versatile computer (general-purpose computer), it was only designed to decode secret messages. Secondly, the existence of the machine was kept secret until decades after the war ended.

Work done by the Americans at that time to produce an other progress. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is a length of half a football field and has a range of 500 miles along the cable. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical components. Beropreasi machine is slow (it takes 3-5 seconds per calculation) and inflexible (in order of calculations can not be changed.) The calculator can perform basic arithmetic and more complex equations.

Another computer development at present is the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), which was created by the cooperation between the United States government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer was such a huge machine that consume power equal to 160kW.

This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general-purpose computers) that work 1000 times faster than Mark I.

In the mid 1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the University of Pennsylvania team, initiating concepts in computer design that the next 40 years is still used in computer engineering. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a good memory to accommodate the programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key factor of the von Neumann architecture is the central processing unit (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that uses the Von Neumann architecture model.

Both the United States Census Bureau and General Electric have a UNIVAC. One of the impressive results achieved by the UNIVAC dalah success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election.

First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made specifically for a particular task. Each computer has a different binary code program called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and the speed limit. Another feature is the use of first generation computer vacuum tube (which makes the computer at that time are very large) and the cylindrical magnetic data storage.

Second Generation

In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced the development of a computer. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in television, radio, and computers. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been reduced drastically.

The transistor used in computers began in 1956. In other findings in the form of development-magnetic core memory to help the development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than its predecessor. The first machine that utilizes this new technology is a supercomputer. IBM makes supercomputer named Stretch, and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, which was developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle large amounts of data, a capability that is needed by researchers atoms. The machine was very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thereby limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC has ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and others in the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington DC The second-generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations-singakatan to replace the binary code.

In the early 1960s, began to appear successful second generation computers in business, in universities and in government. The second generation of computers is an entirely computer using transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the computer at this time: a printer, storage on disks, memory, operating systems and programs.

One important example is the computer during 1401 are widely accepted in the industry. In 1965, almost all large businesses use the second generation of computers for financial memprosesinformasi.

Programs stored in computers and programming language that is in it gives flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer can print invoices and then run the consumer purchases the product design or calculate payroll. Some programming languages began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use. This programming language replaces complicated machine code with words, sentences, and math formulas more easily understood by humans. This facilitates a person to program and manage the computer. A variety of emerging careers (programmer, systems analyst, and computer systems expert). Industr software also began to emerge and evolve during this second-generation computers.

Third Generation

Although the transistors in many respects the vacuum tube, but transistors generate substantial heat, which could potentially damage the internal parts of a computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combined three electronic components in a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. In Scientists later managed to include more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. Result, computers became ever smaller as the components can be squeezed onto the chip. Other third-generation development is the use of operating system (operating system) which allows the engine to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.

Fourth Generation

After IC, the only place to go was down the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components in a single chip.

Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. Ability to install so many components in a chip that berukurang half coins encourage lower prices and the size of a computer. It also increased their power, efficiency and reliability. Intel chips are made in the year 4004 1971membawa progress on the IC by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a chip is very small. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task specific. Now, a microprocessor can be manufactured and then programmed to meet all the requirements. Soon, every household devices like microwave ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection (EFI) is equipped with a microprocessor.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. Computers no longer be a dominant big companies or government agencies. In the mid-1970s, computer assemblers to offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called minikomputer, sold with a software package that is easy to use by the layman. The most popular software at the time was word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980s, such as the Atari 2600 video game consumer interest for more sophisticated home computer and can be programmed.

In 1981, IBM introduced the use of Personal Computer (PC) for use in homes, offices and schools. The number of PCs that use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continue its evolution toward a smaller size, of computers that are on the table (desktop computers) into a computer that can be inserted into the bag (laptop), or even a computer that can be grasped (palmtops).

IBM PC to compete with Apple Macintosh computers in the fight over the market. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the graphical system on his computer, while his rival was still using a text-based computer. Macintosh also popularized the use of mouse devices.

At the present time, we know the journey with the use of IBM compatible CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPUs made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the fourth generation of computer classes.

Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential to be developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, these computers can be connected together in a network to share a memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with each other. Computer network allows a single computer to form electronic co-operation to solve a process task. By using direct cabling (also called a Local Area Network or LAN), or [telephone cable, the network can become very large.

Fifth Generation

Defining a fifth-generation computer becomes quite difficult because this stage is still very young. Examples are the fifth generation computer imaginative fictional HAL9000 computer from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL displays all the desired functions from a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence or AI), the HAL may have enough reason to do percapakan with humans, using visual feedback, and learning from his own experience.

Although it may be the realization of HAL9000 still far from reality, many of the functions that had been established. Some computers can receive verbal instructions and be able to mimic human reasoning. The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible. This facility is deceptively simple. However, such facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human pengertia highly dependent on the context and meaning rather than simply translate the words directly.

Many advances in computer design and technology enables the creation semkain fifth generation computer. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capabilities, which will replace the non-Neumann model. Non Neumann model will be replaced with a system that is able to coordinate many CPUs to work in unison. Another advancement is the superconducting technology that allows the flow of electrically without any obstacles, which will accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country well known in the jargon of socialization and the fifth generation computer project. Institution ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Many news stating that this project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring new changes in the world of computerized paradigm.

related articles:
laptops first and legendary

Permalink :

Related Post

0 komentar:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...