History and All About Apple Company

Apple, Inc.(Formerly Known as Apple Computer, Inc. ..) Is a Silicon Valley company based in Cupertino, California, Which is engaged in computer technology. Apple helped the beginning of the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and promote its products since the 1980s to the present with the Macintosh. Apple is famous for-device software and hardware, and Standard and Poor as the iMac, the iPod music player devices, and online music store iTunes Store. .


Before helping to establish Apple, Steve Wozniak was an electronics hacker. In 1975, he worked at Hewlett-Packard and helped his friend Steve Jobs design video games for Atari. At that time, Wozniak had been buying computer time on a variety of minicomputer-hosted by Call Computer, a timesharing company. Computer terminal at the time were primarily paper-based; thermal printers such as Texas Instruments Silent 700 is the most advanced terminals. Wozniak saw an article in Popular Electronics magazine called 1975 issue of how to build your own computer terminal. Using the tools that can be purchased at the store, Wozniak to design and create a computer named Computer Conversor, video sebuat teletype that could be used to access the minicomputer in the Call Computers. Designnya later purchased by Call Computers, and number of units sold.

In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of a club called the Homebrew Computer Club. New microcomputers like the Altair 8800 and IMSAI inspired her to put a microprocessor into his video teletype to make it a complete computer.

At that time, a lot of available CPU is the Intel 8080 $ 179 and Motorola 6800 $ U.S. 170. Wozniak is more interested in the Motorola 6800, but both were too expensive price. He was then aware, and designed computers on paper, waiting for the day on which he was able to buy the CPU.

When the MOS Technology 6502 chip production in 1976 with a price of $ U.S. 20, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for the chip, and started to design a computer to run it. 6502 Chip chip designed by pendesign 6800, because many workers leave the company in Silicon Valley, and create your own company.

Woznia later managed to make the computer and bring it to meetings to show Homebrew Computer Club. At one meeting, Wozniak met his old friend, Steve Jobs, who was interested in the potential commercialization of small computers.

First years

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had been friends since long. First met in 1971 when a friend introduced Wozniak who was then aged 21 years, to Jobs who was then 16 years old. Jobs persuaded Wozniak to make computers and sell them. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, which is said to be interested in buying a computer, but only if it came fully. The owner, Paul Terrell, said he was ready to buy 50 units pay $ 500 only.

Wozniak artificial computer only has a few advantages. One is to use TV as a monitor, in which time many computers do not have a monitor at all. This monitor is not like a modern monitor, and only display the text with 60 characters per second speed. This computer named Apple I and contains bootstrap code on ROM which makes it easier to enabled. Finally, by force Paul Terrell, Wozniak also designed a cassette mechanism to open and save the program with a speed of 1.200 bits / sec, a speed high enough at the time. Although the computer is quite simple, its design is a masterpiece, using the number of components with far fewer computers like, and succeeded in giving to Wozniak's reputation as a master designer quickly.

Assisted by one other friend, Ronald Wayne, the three of them began to produce computer. By using a variety of ways, including borrowing space from friends and family, sell a variety of treasures personally (such as a calculator and a VW Combi), scavenged, a little deceptive, Jobs managed to get the components needed for production while Wozniak and Wayne make these computers . Completed and sent in June, they were paid according to the promise by Paul Terrell. In the end, 200 Apple I units produced.

But Wozniak was more advanced than Apple I. Many design elements of Apple I made because of limited funds held by them to make a prototype. But with revenues from sales of the Apple I, he could begin production of more sophisticated computers, Apple II, Apple II was introduced to the public on the West Coast Computer Faire in April 1977.

The main difference with the Apple I, it was a designed total TV viewing, where the view is stored in memory. In this way, the monitor can display not only text, but the Apple II can display images, and finally, color. At the same time, Jobs emphasized the casing and keyboard design better, with the idea that computers should be complete and ready to run. Apple I almost get like that, but users still need to attach various parts together and write code to run BASIC.

Building such a machine would be costly. Jobs started looking for cash, but Wayne's little doubt due to a failed company four years earlier, and eventually left the company. Jobs finally met up with Mike Markkula which guarantees bank loans of $ U.S. 250,000, and all three companies to form Apple Computer on April 1, 1976.

With funding and a new chassis design, the Apple II was released in 1977 and became a computer that is usually associated with the emergence of the PC market. Million units sold until the 1980s. When Apple went public in 1980, they generate the most funds since Ford went public in 1956.

Various kinds of Apple II models were produced, including the Apple IIe and Apple IIgs.
Apple III and Lisa

Entering the decade of 1980, Apple faces competition in the personal computer business. One of the major challenger is IBM, the first well-known companies in the computer field. IBM computers using DOS operating system that Microsoft licensed to IBM by reaching a large portion of the market share of desktop computers for large companies who are still young.

Some smaller companies use the Apple II, but Apple felt the need to issue new, more advanced models to compete in the field of desktop computers for large companies. So, the designers of the Apple III was forced to follow the wishes Steve Jobs is too high and impossible to be fulfilled. One of them is removing the cooling fan - which, he said, according to Steve Jobs does not elegant. New machine is then very often experience overheating and some initial model should be withdrawn from the market. Apple III were very expensive even if Apple tried issuing a revised version in 1983 which also failed in the market.

Meanwhile, some groups within Apple is also trying to develop new types of personal computers, with advanced technologies such as graphical user interface, mouse, object-oriented programming and the ability to use network. Those people, including Jef Raskin and Bill Atkinson tries to convince Steve Jobs to give its full support in developing their ideas.

Only after they took Steve Jobs to see the technology developed at Xerox PARC Alto computer on-month in December 1979 so rest assured that the future of Steve Jobs will deliver a graphics-intensive computer, icon-friendly and well supported by a team of Apple Macintosh or Apple Lisa, although they are competing with each other. Although the idea was to invite disapproval from the PARC researchers, many of which ended up working for Apple as Larry Tesler, Apple's engineers allow Xerox to visit PARC facility with the agreement that Apple will sell one million of their shares before the company went public (total price when it ranged U.S. $ 18 million). The Apple Lisa was released in January 1983 with a price of U.S. $ 10,000. Once again, Apple is introducing products that were very advanced at the time, but too expensive (this error will be repeated during the next few years Apple), and once again Apple failed to reach the market that are available. Apple Lisa and then dismissed in 1986.


Lisa Project is released from the control of Steve Jobs when he was half finished. Steve Jobs then turned his attention to the Macintosh project, which was originally considered a type of Lisa's cheaper. Apple Macintosh was launched in 1984 with a television commercial titled 1984 based on the novel by George Orwell is also named in 1984, with the statement, "On January 24th, Apple Computer will from Introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 will not be like '1984 '"- the meaning of those words is a new Macintosh computer and information will be freed from constraints of large corporations and technocrats. Apple also led to the concept of preachers Apple (Apple evangelist), which was pioneered by Apple employee named Guy Kawasaki.

Although there is concern about the lack of available software, the screen is black and white and arkitekturnya terutup, Macintosh brand eventually became a successful product for Apple even to this day. Many feel that success should be much greater than the reality. When Bill Gates, Microsoft founder and present leader, visited Apple headquarters are in Cupertino, Steve Jobs showed a prototype of a graphical user interface for the Macintosh. In 1985 Microsoft launched Windows, a graphical user interface for computers made by IBM on their own. At that time, IBM's computer systems have been reverse engineered and many companies also make computers compatible with IBM. Even though Apple gives license to some other products, they never gave permission to other companies to make compatible with Macintosh computers, so Microsoft could dominate the existing market share. At that time, Apple realized that they were too late to reclaim the market power they once had. Macintosh compatible computers sold in the 1990s was only a small success. Although the first Windows version is very outdated compared to the Macintosh, and computer software compatible with Windows can be bought at a price much cheaper than a Macintosh. Additionally, improvements made Microsoft quickly catch up to them. It is also because of the openness which is owned by IBM-compatible computers lead to more software available for Windows than Macintosh.

Microsoft and Windows in the future will be the most phenomenal success stories in the twentieth century and Apple will not regain his title as number one personal computer maker in the world.

The years just

After the failure of the Macintosh Portable in 1989, Apple tried to introduce a portable computer that is more popular, PowerBook, at the beginning of the decade in 1990. The first generation of products was designed with Sony and provide layout for a portable computer which is still used to date: the back to support the screen hinge, keyboard placed to the rear overhangs and a trackball (which later became the trackpad) is positioned in front of the keyboard. But the PowerBook brand failures after 5300 PowerBook models have a lot of problems in quality, like a battery that is easily damaged, porous and easy to frame the screen is not good. Products from Apple's past and present are also included, such as ProDOS operating system, Mac OS, Mac OS X, and A / UX, networking products such as AppleTalk, and multimedia programs such as QuickTime and Final Cut software series. In 1994, Apple update their products with the introduction of the Macintosh Power Macintosh series, which uses IBM's PowerPC processors collaboration, Motorola and Apple. This processor uses a RISC architecture, which is far different from the previous 680x0 series. Apple's operating system is adjusted so that the software developed for the processor that can run on older PowerPC processor series.

Having problems with leadership in Apple's new CEO John Sculley in dekare 1980s, Steve Jobs out of Apple and founded NeXT Inc. company., Which ultimately failed, despite having a good start. Later, In Apple's effort to save his company, they bought NeXT operating system as well as with its UNIX-based NeXTstep which also brought back Steve Jobs to the company she founded. Sata a first step that she did as interim leader is on Apple iMac sparked the idea to develop, products that would save Apple from its destruction as well as providing time for them to streamline the existing operating system.

Apple released the product after it is Apple Airport Wireless LAN technology that uses a computer to connect to the Internet without using cables. They also issued a G4 iBook and PowerMac.

In early 2002, Apple released the iMac G4. This computer has a basic part of the half round and flat screen which is supported with a neck that can be driven. This model was dismissed in the summer of 2004. A new model that uses the processor G5 processor was released on August 31, 2004 and went on sale in mid-September the same year. These models eliminate the bottom and pack the entire central processing units (central processing unit) behind a computer screen which is supported by a sleek aluminum foot. Was called the iMac G5 computer is the world's thinnest desktop computers, with a thickness of only two inches or 5.1 cm.

In mid 2003, Apple released the fifth generation of PowerPC processors that use the PowerPC 970 series processors developed by IBM. This is a 64-bit computer was made available to the public.

In 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X, an operating system that is based from NeXTstep that combines the stability, reliability and security that is owned UNIX with the ease of use of Macintosh into a software that can be used both for those engaged in professional or personal . Mac OS X also has a program called Classic Environment that can run software designed for older operating systems 9.1-9.2.2. Apple also provides options for the old software developer to use the Carbon technology could be adapted so that their programs directly into Mac OS X. In this way, a program can take advantage of all the new features available in Mac OS X.

In January 2007, Apple entered the mobile phone market by introducing the iPhone, which will be released in the same year in the U.S.. At the same time, the company's name will also be trimmed to take off the word "Computer" to represent the company's product diversification

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