History of England

History of England- Histories In The World's

England is the country's largest and most populous part of the states that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). The other countries are Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Often the English name used to refer to the whole country.

England's territory covers two thirds of the island of Britain, is bordered by Scotland to the north and west Wales.
In contrast to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the UK does not have its own local government and parliament.






Symbols of State


British national flag, known as St. George Cross, the flag of the country since the 13th century. Actually, the flag was used as the maritime territory of the Republic of Genoa. British monarch pays tribute to the Government of Genoa from the year 1190, so that British ships could use the flag as a symbol of protection when passing through the waters of the Mediterranean.


History of British Monarchy



History of the British monarchy can we trace the history of the kings of Angles and Scotland. Since the year 1000 appeared a number of kingdoms in the area of ​​England and Scotland which forms the reigning monarch of the era. One of the king that we need to know is that King Harold II, last king of the Anglo-Saxon. Harold II power over the Anglo-Saxons before the Normans invaded by the army in 1066. Killing of Harold II in this war made England taken over by the Normans.

Important events that characterize the development of the British monarchy:

1. Century IX: After the occupation of Viking, Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex became the most powerful empire. The kingdom was led by Alfred the Great and has the power in the western region of Mercia. Alfred the Great the title "King of Home". His successor, Athelstan, became the first king who controlled all parts of the kingdom despite retaining the power of regional identity respectively;
2. XI century: Britain experienced a more stable situation though involved in wars, for example by Denmark (Danes), which makes Denmark ruled for a generation;
3. Year 1066: Britain was attacked by the Normans led by William (Duke of Normandy). This Normandy assault causing political and social changes in the UK;
4. William (later William I) was replaced by two sons, William II and Henry (later Henry I). Henry I made the controversial decision to appoint his daughter, Matilda (the only child born alive) as the successor to the throne.
5. Year 1135: After the death of Henry I, grandson of William I, namely Stephen, seized the throne of England with the support of the barons. This makes Matilda rebelled. Chaos is what introduces us to the term "Anarchy"; England had periods of bitter and completely erratic.
6. Year 1154: The son of Matilda, who was also named Henry, seized power and became King of England Angevin (or Plantagenet) first to occupy the British throne, with the title of Henry II. During the Angevin dynasty, the British suffered many rebellions and riots. One of them is rebellion by his own two sons, Richard and John. After Henry II died, the throne transferred to Richard (later Richard I). However, Richard I rarely was in the palace because of his time to the Crusades (Crusades). Richard I was killed and succeeded by his brother, John.
7. Year 1215: The King John's barons urged to ratify the Magna Carta (Great Charter, or the Great Charter), which contains the guarantee of equal rights and freedom for the nobility. Tensions that led to the outbreak of war (known as "the First Barons' War").
8. Year 1216: King John died when the son of his crown, Henry, 9 years old. However, although still a child, Henry still ascended the throne (title of Henry III). After Henry III becomes King of England, there was a revolt of the barons led by Simon de Montfort ("the Second Barons' War").
9. Year 1265: The war ended for the victory of the kingdom and the kingdom is marked with the approval of the legalization of Magna Carta.
10. King Edward II became the next ruler; England experienced a period of relative stability. This period occurred the conquest of Wales. Edward II also tried to control Scotland. However, Edward II effort to get interference from the nobility.
11. Year 1311: Edward II was forced to let go of some authority to the "committee of baronial" ordainers' ", but he managed to overcome thanks to the help of military conflict and regain absolute power in 1322.
12. Year 1322: Edward II was killed by, ironically, his own wife, who named Isabella. The death of Edward II, this makes 14-year-old son ascended the throne and the title of Edward III. Edward III claimed the French power to cause the 100 Years War between England and France.
13. In 1374: Parliament of the United Kingdom is divided into two chambers (House).
14. Year 1377: Edward III died and the throne switched to 10-year-old crown prince, Richard (title of Richard II). Richard II is also in conflict with the nobility.
15. Year 1399: Richard II imprisoned and killed while visiting Ireland. The departure of Richard II to Ireland is exploited by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, to conduct a coup. Bolingbroke becomes King of England next to the delar Henry IV. Bolingbroke was the grandson of Edward III and son of John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster). With the reign of Henry IV then switch on the family dynasty of Lancaster and the famous "House of Lancaster". After Henry IV died, the kingdom of England was led by Henry V.
16. Year 1422: Henry V died. Son crown, which was then still a baby, ascended the throne with the title of Henry VI. The king who was a baby was used by France to get rid of British rule. House of Lancaster is waning strength, get a challenge from the House of York. House of York itself, which is a descendant of Edward III, is a dynasty led by Richard, Duke of York.
17. Year 1460: Duke of York was killed in battle "the Wars of the Roses".
18. Year 1461: Richard, son of the Duke of York won the war and maintain power York, a row of Edward IV, Edward V and Richard III.
19. Year 1485: There was conflict between the dynastic York and Lancaster dynasty, which was won by Lancaster, led by Henry Tudor. Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. Tudor Henry VII ascended the throne title. He neutralizes the power of the dynasty York by marrying Elizabeth of York. Henry VII's reign marked by political changes and disputes with the Papacy in Rome. Henry VII decided to split from the Roman Catholic Church and founded the Church of England (Anglican Church). Momentum is a reform of the religious field.
20. Period 1535-1542: The signing of Wales Acts. Wales which has a separate status from the kingdom, although still under the authority of the United Kingdom, finally annexed by the kingdom as well. Field of religious reform was continued by his successor Henry VII, Edward VI.
21. 1553: Edward VI died at a young age and changes in leadership crisis between his half sister, Mary (a Catholic) and Jane Grey. Jane Grey to the throne, but only lasted for nine days. Mary gain public confidence and become the new ruler (later Mary I). During power Mary I, the British-French war erupted again. Mary I also took the initiative to return to Roman Catholicism, with marked burning Protestant attributes.
22. 1558: Mary I died and the throne of England turned to Elizabeth (hereinafter referred to as Elizabeth I). UK re-embrace Protestant and became a great power in the world in terms of naval and exploration of the New World.
23. 1603: Elizabeth I died. This makes the departure of the Tudor dynasty ended. Elizabeth I did not have children so that the throne was taken over by the ruler of Scotland, King James VI (hereinafter referred to as James I), which is the great-grandson of the eldest sister of Henry VIII and comes from the House of Stuart. James I became the first person who calls himself "King of Great Britain".
24. Period 1629-1640: "Eleven Years 'Tyranny', ie the absolute power of King James I in the absence of Parliament.
25. 1642: James I vs. Peak contention. Parliament and trigger a civil war (Civil War Classic).
26. Year 1603: Lord of Scotland, King James VI becomes King of England with the title of James I.
27. Period 1649-1660: The tradition of monarchy stalled by the action of republican groups incorporated in the Commonwealth of England. These changes trigger a war known as the "War of the Three Kingdoms".
28. Year 1707: The Kingdom of Scotland and England merged into one and form a kingdom called "Kingdom of Great Britain".
29. 1801: Kingdom of Ireland joined in the kingdom so that the British Empire was renamed the name changed to "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland".
30. 1921, UK became the nominal head of the peak for the British Empire, which controls a quarter of the world.
31. In 1922 most of the territory of Ireland broke away from England and form a new country, "Irish Free State", but the UK law is still valid until 1949.
32. In 1931, the United Kingdom is divided into the powers of different Commonwealth.
33. Post-World War II, along with the proclamation of independence of India, the power of the British Empire effectively ended. This period also marked the birth of the "Commonwealth" (Commonwealth), an environment of independent states that formerly a British colony. Head of the Commonwealth (Head of the Commonwealth) held by the British Monarchy (in this case King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II at this time). Until recently listed 15 countries in the Commonwealth under the British Empire.



History of English becomes an international language


history of the origin of english language is very long to become international. even this language into the curriculum mandatory for all elementary and middle parts throughout the World. and became the language most widely used by humans throughout human civilization.

English is the origin of the West Germanic language, originating from England. This language is a combination of several local languages ​​are used by people of Norway, Denmark, and the Anglo-Saxons from the 6th century to 10. Then in 1066 the British conquered by William the Conqueror, the conqueror of Normandy, Northern France, the English began to be influenced by very intensive Latin and French. Of the entire vocabulary of modern English, it is estimated ± 50% came from French and Latin.

English Germanic language family belong, and especially from the West Germanic branch. Its closest relatives are the language of Friesland. Besides the Dutch language (including German languages ​​other downstream) are still close. German (German upstream) somewhat further.
But of all the Germanic languages, English is the language most others in grammar and vocabulary. English vocabulary is heavily influenced by French, who entered through the Norman conquest and the latter through the use of French as the official language for several centuries in government.

English is the first in the United States, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, United Kingdom, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, New Zealand and Trinidad and Tobago.

Also English is also one of the official language in international organizations such as the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee, as well as the official language in many countries, such as in South Africa, Belize, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Ireland, Canada, Nigeria, Singapore, and others.
In the world of English is a second language learned first.

English can be spread due to political influence and British imperialism and subsequently the United Kingdom in the world. One of the ancient British adage about the British empire called the British Empire (British Empire) is where the "sun never sets" ("where the sun never sets").

English grammar has a variation in the structure and its use, it depends on the tradition that is used by a country that is affected by the native language of the country. Generally speaking, grammar is a grammar that guided American and British English United Kingdom (British).

That's a brief history of English from beginning to become an international language.


Excerpted from various sources

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